Tut Ankh Amun
He is one of the pharaohs of the eighteenth Egyptian family in the history of ancient Egypt, was Pharaoh Egypt From1334 BC. M to1325 BC. M. Tutankhamun is one of the most famous Pharaohs For reasons not related to his achievements or wars he won, as is the case with many of the Pharaohs; but for other reasons that are historically important and most notably is the discovery of his tomb and its treasures completely without any damage. And the mystery that surrounded the circumstances of his death, as many considered death Pharaoh At a very early age it is not normal, especially with traces of fractures bony Thigh And skull, and marriage and vizier of his widow after his death and the inauguration of the same pharaoh. All these mysterious events, and the heavy use of legend The Curse of the Pharaohs Associated with Tutankhamun’s tomb used in movies and games the video It made Tutankhamun more famous Pharaohs For unanswered puzzles and questions, some considered them one of the oldest assassinations in History Humanity, Tutankhamun, a young adult, died and was buried in his cemetery -Cemetery62 – at Valley of the Kings.
Tutankhamun was nine years old when he became Pharaoh Egypt And his name in the ancient Egyptian language means “Live image of the deity Amon”, Big Egyptian deities Old. Tutankhamun lived in a transitional period in history Ancient Egypt Where he came after Akhenaten Who tried to unite the gods Ancient Egypt In the form of the One God Sunday. During his reign, he returned to worship Egyptian gods Old multi. His grave was discovered publicly 1922 at Valley of the Kings By a British archaeologist Howard Carter. This discovery caused a widespread media sensation in the world.
Tutankhamun, son of king Akhenaten ( Amenhotep the Fourth ). The Supreme Council of Egyptian Antiquities was announced in April of the year 2010 It is based on tests DNA Known as the acronym ( In English: ) DNA It turns out that Tutankhamun is the son of King Akhenaten Tutankhamun became king Egypt He is a child after the death of his brother Smenkh Ka Ra, who was married to Ankh Amun.
Tutankhamun died in mysterious and unknown circumstances, after which his former minister was to rule Which And who is married to Ankh Amun Tutankhamun’s widow.
( Young Lady ) is the unofficial name given to mummy Stumbled upon Valley of the Kings Egypt, in Cemetery No35, By archaeologist Victor Lauret in1898 And, through recent DNA tests, this mummy was identified as the king’s mother Tutankhamun, and the daughter of the king 3 rd Amenhotep And Queen T, And was also given the label ( “YL” It is the acronym for Young Lady in English ), And it is currently located at Egyptian Museum In Cairo, early speculation was moving towards her mind Nefertiti, Which is still popular with Egyptian archaeologists, but tests DNA This hypothesis has not been confirmed, and questions about this possibility remain.
During Tutankhamun’s reign, a revolt began to Tell el-Amarna Against the movement of the previous pharaoh Akhenaten Who moved the capital from Kind To his new capital Aton’s sister Minya And try to unite The gods of ancient Egypt The multitude including God Amoun In the form of one God Aten. In the year1331 BC. M. That is, in the third year of the rule of Tutankhamun, who was11 years old and under the influence of the minister Which Lift the ban on the worship of deities.
It is widely believed that Tutankhamun’s death was not due to pathological causes, but rather due to an operation Assassination It was arranged by Minister Khirkhiru Ra Ai and there are many pieces of evidence that believers present in this theory, for example, the marriage of Minister Khirkhiru Ra Ay from the widow of Tutankhamun, where a pharaonic seal bearing the name of I and Ankh Sun Amun, the widow of Tutankhamun was found, and there is also a message sent by Ankh Amun Tutankhamun’s widow to a king Hittites She asks him to send one of his sons to marry her after the death of her husband, and the King of the Hittites sent one of his sons to marry Tutankhamun’s widow, but he died before entering the land Egypt It is believed that he was most likely assassinated under the direction of The Minister Khir Khirru Ra I, who was planning to seize a throne Egypt He killed King Tutankhamun and killed the son of the King of the Hittites, but these are hypotheses and there is no conclusive evidence to prove all these theories…
It is worth noting that historical evidence indicates the presence of two ministers of Tutankhamun, one of which was mentioned, and the other was his name. Horemheb There is archaeological evidence confirming that after the death of Tutankhamun, the minister received Which The reins of government for a short period to be replaced by the second minister Horemheb During his reign, most of the evidence for Tutankhamun’s rule and Minister Ay was destroyed, and this confirms to some the conspiracy theory and the fact that Tutankhamun’s death was due to malaria, which was widespread in the south.
The causes of his death
For a long time the reason for the death of Tutankhamun was a controversial issue and many conspiracy theories suggested the idea that he did not die but was killed in an assassination. at 8 March 2005 As a result of the use of 3D computer tomography three-dimensional CT scans On the mummy of Tutankhamun stated archaeologist The Egyptian Zahi Hawass There is no evidence that Tutankhamun was subjected to an assassination operation, adding that the hole in his skull is not due to the reason he received a blow to the head as previously thought, but that this hole was created after death for embalming and the ills of Zahi Hawass broke in bone The left thigh, which has long been associated with the theory of assassination as the result of a fracture in bone The thigh suffered from Tutankhamun before his death, and the infection caused by this fracture may have caused his death.
Recent analyzes also showed that bone The roof of the oral cavity of Tutankhamun was not complete and the height of Tutankhamun was170 cm and the width of his skull was greater than the normal length, which led to some suggesting a disease Marfan syndrome As a cause of early death, this genetic condition is transmitted through Genes Dominant bodywork.
It was the team’s final report Archaeologists The Egyptian The cause of death is blood poisoning due to a fracture of the thigh bone of Tutankhamun, which led to the langerin Gangrene Which is the death of cells and tissues and their breakdown as a result of secretion Enzymes From dead muscles due to lack of access The oxygen To it via the blood.
Before this report, there were attempts to find out a reason the death Using X-rays X-rays On the mummy of Tutankhamun took place at the University Liverpool And university Michigan In1968 and in 1978 Respectively, the two universities discovered a dark spot under the skull of Tutankhamun from behind which was interpreted as bleeding in the brain resulting in the hypothesis that he had received a blow to his head that led to a brain hemorrhage than the death.
In a study published in March 2010 AD, she explained that the cause of the death of Tutankhamun is due to malaria and complications of a leg fracture. The study also indicated that there are some genetic diseases caused by a genetic defect inherited in the family.
Discovering Tutankhamun’s tomb
It was so-called Valley of the Kings Located on the west bank of a river Nile near Kind And for a period of450 years during the era of the modern state from the history of the ancient Egyptians, which spanned from 1539 to1075 BC, it is a cemetery for the Pharaohs of that period where there is in this rock valley, which has an area of approximately20.000 square meters27, royal tombs belonging to three families, namely Eighteenth Egyptian family And the nineteenth Egyptian family And the twentieth Egyptian family It was discovered until today.
It is believed that the valley includes at least30 other tombs that have not yet been discovered. The tombs discovered in the Valley of the Kings so far and according to the chronological order of the rule of the Pharaohs go back to Thutmose I And Amenhet the second And Tutankhamun berries It is welcome They are from Eighteenth Egyptian family The first Ramses My first city Ramses II Amenmises My second city And glory They are from The nineteenth Egyptian family West Ramses III And Ramses IV The Fifth Ramses And Ramses IX They are from Twenty Egyptian family. There are other graves of unknown pharaohs, attempts are still underway to know them.
He was building a tomb The Pharaoh Usually begins days after the inauguration of pharaohs on Egypt The construction would take decades, most of the time, and workers could use simple tools such as ax To dig long canyons and form small rooms in the valley and over time there were graves built on top of other graves and the tunnels and new grooves were often blocked leading to the corridors leading to the tomb of the old pharaoh, the lack of organized planning this was the main reason that led to the survival of these treasures and not subjected to theft For thousands of years.
On November 4- 1922 And when he was archaeologist And specialized in the history of ancient Egypt British Howard Carter excavates at the entrance to the tunnel leading to a grave Ramesses VI at Valley of the Kings He noticed a large cellar and continued careful exploration until he entered the room that includes the tomb of Tutankhamun and was on the walls of the room that contains the shrine wonderful drawings tells in the form of pictures of the story of the departure of Tutankhamun to the world of the dead and the scene was very wonderful to the world Howard Carter Who was looking at the room through an opening with a candle in it and said that his assistant asked him, ” Can you see anything? ” -Carter replied, ” Yes, I see wonderful things.”
In16 February 1923 It was Howard Carter (1874 – 1939) The first person in more than3000 years to set foot on the floor of the room containing the ark of Tutankhamun. Carter noticed the presence of a wooden box with gold-embossed inscriptions in the middle of the room and when he lifted the box he noticed that the box was covering a second box decorated with gold-embossed inscriptions and when he lifted the second box he noticed that the second box was covering a third box inlaid with gold and when the third box was raised Carter arrived at the sarcophagus Which was covered with a thick layer of carved stone in the form of a statue of Tutankhamun and when he lifted this stone cover Carter arrived at Golden coffin The main statue was that of Tutankhamun and this golden sarcophagus covered two other golden sarcophagi in the form of statues of the young pharaoh.
Howard had trouble lifting the third golden shroud, which was covering the mummy of Tutankhamun from the mummy, so Carter thought that exposing the shroud to the heat of the summer sun of Egypt would be enough to separate the golden shroud from the mummy, but his attempts failed and he was forced in the end to cut the shroud Golden In two halves to reach The mummy Who was wrapped with layers of silk and after removing the shroud made of cloth, he found the mummy of Tutankhamun in the full adornment of necklaces, rings, crown, and sticks, all of which were pure gold, to remove these artifacts the excavation team had to separate the skull and the main bones from its joints and after removing the jewelry the team re-installed The skeleton For the mummy and put it in a wooden coffin.
King Tutankhamun’s dagger
The material from which the Egyptian pharaoh’s dagger, Tutankhamun, is not from the planet Earth. The researchers assumed that the ancient Egyptians preferred to use meteorites when making weapons for the wealthy and other honorary products, after analyzing the components of the dagger using X-rays, and they discovered that the border of the dagger contained iron that contains a large percentage of nickel and cobalt, just as meteors were found on the shore of the Red Sea. That extends over two thousand kilometers. It is worth noting that the mentioned dagger was found by British Huffard Carter in 1925 during the excavations he conducted in the Pharaoh’s Tomb, which is one of two, and archaeologists have previously found other products made by ancient Egyptians from meteorites.
In February 2010 she decided Egyptian Ministry of Tourism Allow the mummy of the young Pharaonic king Tutankhamun to be shown to the public for the first time since its discovery with its golden shrine in Luxor85 years ago.
The director said Egyptian Antiquities Authority Zahi Hawas said that more than two years ago, Egyptian scientists began restoring the mummy of Pharaoh Tutankhamun, which was severely damaged after being removed for a short period from her sarcophagus when subjected to axial tomography., He added that the largest part of the body of the mummy was broken into18 pieces that look like stones that destroyed parts when the British archaeologist Howard Carter first discovered them and removed them from her grave and tried to remove the golden mask that was covering the face of King Tutankhamun and indicated that the mystery that surrounded Tutankhamun and his mausoleum Golden aroused the curiosity and enthusiasm of the fans of the ancient Egyptian mummy in the studies site since revealed Carter 4 November / October the second, 1922and what was in store of the treasures of gold and precious stones.
The scientists had driven out the mummy of ” Tutankhamun ” from her grave and placed them on the CT scan table advanced for a quarter of an hour in2005 to obtain a three – dimensional image of the mummy older than3.000 years. And the results of the medical examiner ruled out that the young pharaoh had died, but she could not determine the exact way of his death, which occurred in the year1323 BC. The photos discovered that King Tutankhamun had suffered a fracture in his left thigh, probably due to an accident, which later resulted in an unspecified fatal disease. The photos also provided an unprecedented revelation about the life of the young pharaoh, who is considered one of the most famous kings of ancient Egypt, including the fact that he was healthy because of his good nutrition, despite the transformation of his structure, which does not exceed170 cm in height at his death. And there are strange things that happen to everyone who enters it. For example, the first scientist who discovered it died of poisoning, and some believe that this is because of food and others believe that it is because of the curse of the Pharaohs.
Attempts to find out the mystery of his death
On 17 February 2010, it was announced Zahi Hawass Secretary-General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities at that time in a press conference in a park Egyptian Museum A collection of scientific discoveries that solve many mysteries of endings The eighteenth family Including the mystery of Tutankhamun’s death, by analyzing the DNA of King Tut’s mummy, the results showed that the cause of death was due to the malaria parasite, and complications caused sharply by the disease likely led to his death. The analysis of DNA and CT scans of Tutankhamun’s mummy revealed that the king Akhenaten He is the father of King Tut. The results also revealed that genetic and genetic diseases played a role in the death of Tutankhamun, as he was suffering from a genetic defect inherited in the family and there were weaknesses and diseases in these mummies and problems related to the heart and blood vessels. When the researchers scanned Tutankhamun’s mummy, they found him suffering from many diseases such as having a borderline in his spine, along with the deformation of the big toe, which led to atrophy in his left foot.
Hawass said that the old drawings depicted Tutankhamun as he was shooting arrows while he was sitting in the horse-drawn carriage, not while standing, which is unusual .. And in his grave, we found100 walking sticks, and at first we thought that they represented power and strength, but It turned out to be old crutches he was using, as he could barely walk and walk.
Hawass also pointed out that the computer survey of the mummy in2005 was intended to verify that he was killed, because previous X-ray images revealed a hole in his skull, adding that it was found that this hole was done during the mummification process, but a fracture was discovered in The left leg bone, may have a role in the death of the little pharaoh.
The importance of the treasures of Tutankhamun
The importance of the group of King Tutankhamun is due to many reasons. The first is that the treasure of King Tutankhamun is the most complete royal treasure found and unparalleled, as it consists of three hundred and fifty-eight pieces that include the magnificent golden mask and three coffins in the form of man, one of which is pure gold The other two are of gilt wood. Second: That baggage dates back to the eighteenth dynasty and the most elegant times of the modern state, as the country opened to the territories of the ancient Near East thanks to military campaigns and commercial relations from the export and import of resources and manufactured products and the activity of craftsmen and artists. Finally, this enormous group has remained in Egypt, showing how the royal tomb was being prepared and prepared, as there is daily luggage such as dolls and toys, then a set of complete furniture, war tools and statues of deities related to the burial of the king and the rituals performed by him, and the famous Tutankhamun trumpet Made of silver and copper, all these contents are now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Fourth: From this treasure or enormous group, we get to know a lot of the king’s life, a love for hunting, and his relationship with his wife, ” Ankh Asan Amun “, which is believed to be his cousin, in addition to knowing his most important works and his entourage, and finally the only throne chair that reached us from the civilization of the ancient Egyptians.
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