Castle Salah Al-Din Al-Ayoubi or Castle of the mountain It is a castle located on Mokattam Mountain.
Historical brief :
Proceeded Salah Al-Din Al-Ayoubi In the construction of a castle on Mount Mokattam, in a place known as the Air Dome . But he did not complete it in his life . Rather, it was completed by Sultan Al-Kamel bin Al-Adil . He was the first to live in it The complete king And he made it a house for the king . And it continued until the era Muhammad Ali Pasha.
And in the western side of the castle, there is the inserted door and above it a letter indicating the construction of this castle, and its text, “ In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.” He ordered the establishment of this impressive castle, adjacent to the Cairo Guard, which collected benefit, improvement and capacity for those who sought refuge in the shadow of his property and fortification, Mawlana King Nasser The world and religion, Abu al-Mudhafar Yusef bin Ayoub, reviver of the state of the Commander of the Faithful in the eyes of his brother and his crown prince, the just king Saif al-Din Abi Bakr Muhammad Khalil, the Commander of the Faithful, by the ruler of his kingdom, and appointed by his country, Qaraqosh Ibn Abdullah Al-Maliki Al-Nasiri in the year five hundred and seventy “.
Salah al-Din dug a well in the citadel from which the army and the inhabitants of the citadel drew if the water was prevented from it during the siege . She is impressed with what has been done because the well is dug in the rock, 90 meters deep from the level of the castle’s land. This requires a great effort at that time..
The Citadel of Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi in Cairo is considered one of the most luxurious military castles constructed in the Middle Ages. Its strategic location is first-class, with the defensive importance this site provides because it controls the two cities of Cairo. Al-Fustat , as it constitutes a high natural barrier between the two cities, and also on this site it is possible to provide communication between the castle and the city in the event of the siege, as it will become the last stronghold of the sit-in in the event that the city fell into the hands of the enemy.
Many great historical events passed through this majestic castle, where its walls witnessed various historical events during the Ayyubid and Mamluk eras and the time of the French campaign against Egypt in the year. 1798M , and even Muhammad Ali Pasha took over the reign of Egypt, where he restored her prosperity and greatness . Sultan Al-Nasir Salahuddin Yusef bin Ayyub was the first to consider building a castle on the hilltop of the Sowwah in a year 572 E/ 1176M Where his Minister Bahauddin Qaraqosh Al-Asadi demolished the mosques and graves that were present on the signpost in order to build the castle on it where the workers carved the rock and found an artificial trench separating the mountain of Mokattam from the signpost an increase in its strength and strength.
The doors of the castle .
This door was known as the door of Mokattam, because it is adjacent to the Mokattam tower, which dates back to the Ottoman era. This door was also known as the door of the mountain to supervise the door of Mokattam mountain, but now it is known as the Salah Salem Gate.
This door was blocked in a period of time and it was a rectangular opening that worked in a very thick wall towards the south of the Mokattam tower. This door was added in the year1200 AH 1785 / CE. A wall with terraces dating back to the era of Muhammad Yakan Pasha who was built in this place that was Empty at that time, a palace with its facilities, and on this door there was a memorial plaque bearing a basic text in the Turkish language in the name Yakon Pasha and the date of construction of the door and the palace in the year 1200 AH / 1785 AD is now lost.
When Muhammad Ali Pasha assumed power and made renovations to the castle, he paved a road from Bab Al-Jabal to his castle in Muqattam and added the upward sliding to the top of Al-Muqattam Mountain. The length of this road was about 650 meters. Currently, this road has been constructed and cut through Salah Salem Road and the Helwan and Egypt Railway Road Highway.
The features of this door were lost, as a large part of the fence and terraces that were above were demolished, as well as a large part of the stairs that were connected to the top of the northern wall and Mokattam Tower when the Salah Salem Road was built in 1955 AD and the current door from which it entered the castle was opened from the direction of Salah Salem and adjacent to the door that Muhammad Yon Pasha built, and this Supreme Council of Antiquities reopened this door to suit its historical and cultural status..
The new door
Muhammad Ali Pasha began building the new door in 1242 AH 1827 / AD to be used in place of the inserted door, which was the public door of the castle that was created by Nasser Salahuddin al-Ayyubi in 579 AH 1183 / AD . Muhammad Ali Pasha saw that both the inserted door and the Janissary door were not fit For the passage of vehicles and wheeled cannons, instead he built the new door and paved a sloping road to facilitate going up and down the castle and this road is known today as the New Gate Street or the quarry railway..
The new door has two main interfaces, the first is the northern one, which overlooks the New Gate Street and the quarry rail. It is located in the western side of which is the old archives house, the castle box book and the Janissary door. The length of this facade is15.50 meters and its height is variable, ranging from 16 meters to 20 meters. This interface contains several architectural details distinctive and adorned the entrance block surmounted by a plaque written inside the line prominent area on the floor of the plant branches ” O Brightening doors ” and the bottom of this writing cartouches wrote inside ” Racmh Abdul Ghaffar ” and is located in the Koshcy entrance block a circular medallion diameter of 123 centimeters emboss within mainland G the Egyptian army and the units of various weapons in the era of Muhammad Ali Pasha.
The middle door
He differed in the designation of this section as Al-Wastani. While Casanova mentioned in his book written in1894 AD about Cairo Castle or Al-Jabal Castle that he was called “Al-Wastani” because he mediates the two major religions with the Royal Monsters, the Qaitbay’s and the Al-Ghouri’s Diwan, some researchers mentioned that he was known as Al-Sustani because he was separating the vestibule The public maritime citadel – the new door – and between the yard where the Nasir Muhammad Bin Qalawun Mosque and the Muhammad Ali Pasha Mosque are located, and this tower was known as the Drummers Tower due to its location next to the Dar Al-Adl established by Al-Zahir Baybars, which was neglected during the reign of Al-Mansur Qalawun until it was reconstructed by his son Nasser Muhammad b The Qalawun is not to be a house of justice, but to be for the drummers, and it was called Tablkhana, so this tower was named after the tower of the drummers, because it was close to Tablkhaneh . Muhammad Ali Pasha has renewed this door and the wall that surrounds it, although it is unknown the date of the renewal of the middle door due to the lack of a founding text or memorial plaque in it, but it is likely that he renewed it in 1242 AH / 1826AD when it was renewed to the castle door next to the middle door In the eastern side.
The castle door
The inner door of the castle was known as the castle tower, and this door separated the mountain castle or the fortified military city in the north and the castle and the royal city in the south. Currently, it is known as the Military Museum Gate..
Mokattam Tower/ Al-Safa Tower /Alwa Tower/Cr Kilan Tower/Blink Tower/Airport tower/Tiled tower/The Tombstone/Forward tower or The Qarafa Tower/Ramla Tower/Mourning tower/Desert Tower/Square tower .
1-Al-Jawhara Palace : One of the palaces located in Salah al-den al-ayobi’s castle Next to Muhammad Ali Mosque Or the castle of Muhammad Ali, which turned into a museum Muhammad Ali Pasha It was created by General 1814M. Muhammad Ali Pasha was keen that this palace be of great luxury and pomp. It has many large halls, the most famous of which is the reception hall and the clock room, which is considered the most beautiful in the palace. The palace is decorated with the finest Ottoman decoration arts, whether in wood or stucco panels. The palace is full of budaiya of colors, drawings and patterns. The palace remained preserved until it was finally converted into a museum of Islamic heritage.
The composition of the palace :
The architectural planning of Al-Jawhara Palace consists of several main blocs consisting of two layers that start with the main entrance in front of which is a canopy that is carried on marble pillars, and to the left of this entrance are many buildings topped by other buildings that are simple and related to the Court of Ketkkala or the Saray al-Adl that were created by Muhammad Ali Ba Northeastern is a rectangular room with a double staircase leading to the square . This suite was intended for palace employees or those who were known as the ” Special Court ” . The entrance corridor also leads to buildings designated for the guard duty and the walls of the southern square of the castle and to the main courtyard that the Diwan Palace units and a shed overlook the main reception . As for the units that were allocated for housing, they consisted of the main reception wing or what was known as the “ kiosk ” and was designated for receptions of Muhammad Ali Pasha.. And iwan Attached to it are two sub-halls, in addition to the hall of the firmans or the throne, which is the largest room in the palace and currently supervises the square of the castle, and he was seen from Cairo The Pyramids of Giza In the most amazing sight . We also reach through the reception hall from Salim Road to the marine wing with its two sections and the back garden which was known as the Garden of Lions . The palace was also provided with several halls, including the Alabaster Hall, a type of marble, and the Hall of Hours, in addition to the bathroom known as the ” Alabester Bath “.
The second layer rises above the reception wing . We note that its units wind around the main courtyard and lead to the hospitality palaces . Gilded carvings and decorations were used in the decoration of the walls and ceilings of this palace, consisting of floral motifs, vases and curtain designs executed in a style known as the ” Baroque and Rococo style “, which is characterized by frequent decorative units and landscapes . This palace also had the advantage of containing fleet unit charges . In this palace, Muhammad Ali Pasha received the senior visitors from foreigners and continued to be the headquarters of the official receptions until the era of Khedive Ismail Pasha Who received it Sultan Abdul Aziz Khan Who visited Egypt On Shawwal 1279,4 AH 1862 / CE, he stayed there for a period of seven days . And Al-Jawhara Palace in Cairo is associated with an anniversary The massacre That Muhammad Ali Pasha committed when he hosted, in the reception hall of this palace, leaders Mamluks He killed them all.
2-Al-Haram Palace : This palace is located in the military section of Salah al-den al-ayobi’s castle The northwestern part of it is supervising Mokattam Mountain And the woodland , and he ordered the construction of this palace Muhammad Ali Pasha And that in a year 1242 E/ 1826 M It was also mentioned in the foundational text board installed on the main entrance to the eastern wing.
Historical brief :
This palace was designated as the residence of the governor of Muhammad Ali Pasha, his family and his harem, and it was used as a palace until the advent of British occupation to me Egypt Year 1298 E / 1882 M The palace was turned into a headquarters for the military ruler of the British army and then used as a hospital for the British occupation forces, until the Egyptian government restored it during the reign of the king. Farouk the first Year 1946M And raise The Egyptian flag It has been subjected since that date The Committee for the Preservation of Arab Antiquities Then she took over The Ministry of War I prepared it to be a military museum.
3-Al-Ablaq Palace : Builders Sultan Al-Nasir Muhammad bin Qalawun In1314 AD , on the western side of the slope of Mount Castle . The palace is an Islamic architectural masterpiece and one of the greatest buildings of its time, so it gathered the skill of craftsmen in building and decoration and the facade was composed of parallel cross bars of black and yellow stones, respectively.
The remains of this palace are located between Mohamed Ali Mosque The Jewel Palace On the western side of the slope of the Citadel Mountain, it consists of three levels, the upper exposed level can be seen by standing at the wall of the castle in front of the Muhammad Ali Mosque on the western side and looking at the bottom of the region .. It is reached by a ladder and this level is divided into two different parts in the level between them a wall and there is Collapse on part of the floor of this plane, as there are some newly built walls . As for the middle level of the palace, it is reached via a spiral staircase, like the last two entrances to the palace. The other is located next to Al-Jawhara Palace, and most of it is located below the Muhammad Ali Mosque. The lower part consists of two parts..
4-The Saraya of Justice : The location of these palaces was an ancient building of the honorable king Qaitbay and the Sultan Al-Ghuri and part of the Al-Ablaq Palace built by Al-Nasir Muhammad bin Qalawun. Contains the name of the honorable Sultan Abu Al-Nasr Qaitbay .
Reason for construction :
These palaces were built for the official receptions of Muhammad Ali Pasha, as Muhammad Ali Pasha set them up as the main court in the castle where issues and grievances are examined and the Diwan is gathered to discuss the state of the country .
1-Mohamed Ali Mosque or Alabaster Mosque or Al-Marmar Mosque It is one of the famous archeological mosques In Cairo. Created by Muhammad Ali Pasha Between the period from 1830M to me 1848M Ali Ottoman style , style Sultan Ahmed Mosque Istanbul. It is sometimes called the Alabaster Mosque or Alabaster because of the frequent use of this type of marble in covering its walls . The successors of Muhammad Ali Pasha took care of the mosque, completed the building and added to it some simple additions. They also made it a place to celebrate the annual religious occasions, and they were respectively. Abbas Hilmi Pasha I , Muhammad Saeed Pasha , Ismail Pasha , Tawfiq Pasha. However, the largest restoration was in the era Fouad the first Who ordered the mosque to be restored to its old splendor after its walls were cracked by an engineering defect, as his son cared Farouk the first After him also in the mosque and open it to pray again after the completion of the restoration process.
The mosque was built in a section of land Ablaq Palace inside Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi castle , and it is currently an archeology The Caliph neighborhood The Follower For the southern region In Cairo , and next to it inside the castle Al-Nasir Qalawun Mosque , but outside and near the castle wall, there are several other ancient mosques represented in it Sultan Hassan Mosque , Al-Rifai Mosque , Mahmudiyah Mosque , Qani Bay Al-Rammah Mosque , Gohar Al Lala Mosque.
2-Al-Nasir Muhammad Bin Qalawun Mosque In the castle . Before the establishment of the mosque, the site of the mosque was a small mosque and stores for furniture in the castle. The Sultan Al-Nasir Muhammad bin Qalawun removed it and established this place in 1318, and in1334 he demolished and rebuilt it , and decided to teach fiqh with it.
3-Suleyman Pasha Al-Khadim Mosque It is known as the Mosque of Sariyat al-Jabal, and it was established in the year 1528M. It is located inside Salah al-den al-ayobi’s castle Or castle mountain, on top Mokattam Mountain. Created by Suleiman Pasha Al-Khadim, one of the governors The Ottomans On Egypt 1528 / 1529 M. The importance of this mosque lies in the fact that it is considered the first mosque to be built in Egypt in the Ottoman style, as the mosque of Ahmed Ktkhuda Azan – the mosque of the Azab
4-Ahmed Katkhuda Mosque or Azab Mosque It was built by Ahmad Katkhuda Al-Azab in 1109 AH / 1697 CE. It appeared on the map of the French campaign under the name Al-Azab Mosque. On the northeastern side, the mosque is preceded by a portico with a wooden ceiling with a small mihrab chest. The mosque has two entrances, one of them is a main in the northeastern side and a second branch in the northwestern side. The mosque is located inside the Salah al-Din Citadel (the Citadel of the Mountain) and follows the castle’s ruins.
1-Police Museum , located Castle of Salah al-Din In Cairo With Military Museum , the Police Museum contains many holdings of the Egyptian security services, past and present, as well as tools used in police departments and the police headquarters, uniforms and clothes for police personnel, and some pictures of famous officers and criminals, including pictures. Rhea and Sakina Calligraphy and others….
The area chosen for the stay is located Police National Museum On the northwestern side of Salah al-den al-ayobi’s castle In the area that was called the Flag Square, this site is distinguished by its many historical and civil and military buildings, including the Al-Ablaq Palace, whose excavations were revealed when the Egyptian Antiquities Authority – Supreme Council of Antiquities – Preparing a police museum and this area also contained the artillery center he set up Muhammad Ali Pasha In the nineteenth century AD, as was discovered in this region on the tower of Sibaa, which is inferred from its presence from the upper frieze, in which the forms of carved Sibaa appear and are attributed to Zahir Baybars, who erected it in the year1260 AD.
The Police Museum was opened in1406 AH 25 / January1986 in the presence of the President of the Republic, Mohamed Hosni Mubarak, on the occasion of the Police Day . Departments of the Police Museum received the photos of the interior ministers from1878 CE, starting with Mustafa Riyad Pasha until , 1984when the number of ministers reached , 53 in addition to a personal photo of Muhammad Ali Pasha, weapons, shields, helmets and spears, in addition to a group of police decorations . The Interior Department also prepared a summary of the role of the Antiquities Investigation and the legislation for the protection of archaeological heritage, as well as a brief summary of Adham al-Sharqawi and his activity in the region and some forged coins and machines used in forgery and the section of political assassinations and the Ismaili battle. The museum also displays the development of the police from the Pharaonic era to the modern era on that the most important thing The tourist and visitor to the police museum attracts pictures of Riya and Sakina, who were gang to kidnap and kill the women . The same site was also used as a prison during the Mamluk era of the princes, and it was demolished during the era of King Nasser Muhammad bin Qalawun in . 1338The Police Museum also contains many holdings of the Egyptian security services, ancient and modern, as well as tools used in police stations, karaqons, police personnel clothes and some pictures of famous officers.
2-Military Museum in Egypt Create a year 1937 The old Ministry of Defense building on Astronomical Street in Cairo. Go to a temporary building Garden City Public 1938 It was moved and was officially opened In the Haram Palace In the castle In November 1949 ,It was renewed and opened on July 26/1982, it was developed jointly with the Antiquities Authority and it was opened on April 26/1988 It was developed jointly with DPR Korea In 1990 and opened by the former President of Egypt Mohammed Hosni Mubarak On 11/29/93 .
It occupies the western sea rib For the castle The so-called palaces of the three sanctuary that oversees Mokattam Mountain The woodcutter The runway door (Entrance to the castle ) was ordered Muhammad Ali Pasha Creates these palaces in general 1812 Beginning with the construction of the central palace, then the eastern and western palaces followed and surrounded by one wall, which was now demolished, which made the garden unfold in front of the central palace, and these three palaces are almost similar in their layout..
Ewan Farisuddin Aqtai
Military Castle School
Egyptian army barracks
Castle Industry House – Bab Al-Azab Workshops.
This is a tourist airspace in one of the greatest palaces of Egypt, and follow us to meet in the upcoming tours with tourist tours to get to know the most important monuments and features of ancient Egypt .
With greetings from the Star Shine Tourism team .