Has captured Amun Hatshepsut , is the queen governor of ancient Egyptian , which is the fifth in the sequence of the kings of the family eighteen , was sentenced after the death of her husband King Tuthmosis II as guardians of the young king Thutmose III in the beginning and then Congeniality and the daughter of the god Amun after it published a story Nakectha in the temple Bahari says In it it was the result of an intimate encounter between Amun and her mother, Queen Ahmose , and Maniton is confused in her arrangement and places her after Amenhotep the First in the middle of the eighteenth family .
Amon Hatshepsut spoiled
Amon Hatshepsut , famously ( Hatshepsut ,( took the most famous and powerful power of the queens who ruled Egypt; her rule was a prominent point not only in the history of the eighteenth family, but in the history of all of ancient Egypt . Hatshepsut is the fifth king of the Eighteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt, and Egyptologists consider it one of the most successful ancient Egyptian kings . Its name means : the favorite female friend of Amun, or the female friend of Amun, Dora of the princesses .
Her birthday and family
Hatshepsut was born in1508 BC , and is the eldest daughter of King ( Thutmose I) and Queen ( Ahmose ). The king(Ahmose I ), the owner of the great victory in the liberation of Egypt from the Hyksos , is considered the great grandfather of Hatshepsut, and the founder of the eighteenth pharaonic family to which she belongs .
I was ( Hatshepsut ),the heir to the throne of the country, where there was no legitimate heir of the male, but her brother was not the brother of her father is( Thutmose II), of a secondary wife called ( death Nfrt ).
Hatshepsut received education on ethics and correct behavior, as well as reading and writing, arithmetic and philosophy, religious rituals, grammar and language construction .
She had to persevere in transferring and learning the aphorism of the ancient Egyptian sages , like any of her colleagues, like her half-brother ( Thutmose II) ,princes and young princesses, and a number of sons of ministers and noble families; and there is no doubt that she was afraid of the teacher who was He teaches her lessons, and she fears his violent methods with his students, whatever their status, and this was an example of justice that applies to everyone equally without fear or favor, and which became an essential part in the life of Egyptian society at that time, and Hatshepsut could not demand any special privileges in its treatment, The Royal School was valued Pharaoh’s house, like other schools in the country, begins early in the morning and ends at noon, as do many schools in Egypt today .
Hatshepsut married her half-brother ( Tuthmosis II) , according to the custom of the Pharaohs kings, who was not in front of him to catch the scepter of rule except to marry Hatshepsut, and gave birth to him son and two girls, but the son died in his childhood, and his name did not remain on any traces of the effects And as for the two daughters, they are called ( Nefro Ra ), and ( Meryt Ra Hatshepsut).
Her husband ( Thutmose II ) , his son ( Thutmose III )had a son from a court of concubines, who was called( Iza )..
She took the verdict
The road was not paved in front of Hatshepsut, and furnished with flowers in order to reach the rule, as she persistently and stubbornly confronted a male society and religious authority, refusing to see the ruler except in the form of a man .
Hatshepsut began a difficult time in her life when she was twenty years old, at the death of her father ( Thutmose I )as she was before a partner with her father in power, and the legitimate heir to the throne, so it was reasonable that she was the pharaoh who follows the first to the throne . However, court traditions and priestly intrigues began to interfere in matters because the idea of ruling a woman and putting all powers in her hand was a matter of no desire; for this reason it was imperative that her half-brother( Thutmose II ( be involved with her in the ruling, that skinny and frail person, few Experience in managing the affairs of the country, and being a partner with her in the king as a pharaoh of the country, while she becomes a royal wife, and nothing more .
There was no benefit for the protest behind, as all the circumstances were against it, and they began preparing for her marriage to Thutmose II, and thus, Tuthmosis the second got the legitimacy of the ruling, and we know little about his short-term rule, except for a revolution that took place in the south . But, instead of leading the army himself and marching to the enemies as his father used to do, he gave his teachings to his soldiers to be the most ruthless of those outside his rule .
Was the second Thutmose people were weak , and perhaps he was sick at the same time, and was in fact Hchpson that manages the affairs of state, and govern the country in his name from behind a curtain, and was the author of the commands and prohibitions, and soon after it became clear that the rest of the way of death, and took the courtiers and senior staff They wonder what will happen when he dies? There was no other emir who could succeed him on the throne, as if she would ultimately rule the country alone, while her friends who knew her ability and power were secret of this idea, and they were willing to serve her faithfully when the time came .
However, her husband (Thutmose II )wanted to give his son (Thutmose III )the right to take over the throne after him, and there was a person who was plotting conspiracies with the Temple of Amun at Karnak, evoking the general feeling between the priests and people against the idea of a woman ruling them, and this person was He (Thutmose III ) himself, who lived in the temple as one of his priests .
He died Thutmose II in1501 BC, and one day after his death shortly thereafter, when Hatshepsut was in the temple to witness a celebration which comes out of God procession of Amun , stood stretcher , which was carrying a statue (Amon )in front of a small priest, and refused to budge after that, All those present agreed that what happened was only a sign that Amun had chosen him for the judgment to share .
And this priest, who had the armor (Amun )standing before him, was (Thutmose III )the son of her deceased husband .
On the third day of the month of May1501 BC, Thutmose left his work as one of the youngest priests in the Temple of Amun, to enter the royal palace of the Pharaohs, and he was thirty-four years old at that time, and from the first day there prevailed among them competition and bitterness, and only Hatshepsut was brought together Its supporters turned it around and formed a party for it, and this party did not live until a short time until its influence intensified, and it became so strong that the pharaoh, who had not had enough experience, became totally incapable of governing the country, and was forced to evacuate the place to Hatshepsut .
Finally, Hatshepsut was declared in1404 BC, a king at the level and delta , and Egypt ruled Egypt and its properties abroad alone as Pharaoh . And in the songs of praise that were sung in praise, they called it (Horus the female )and they added the feminization sign at the end of the word that denotes (Majesty ) .
The royal cells in which the name of Hatshepsut was written inside, which appear on the walls of the monastery of the sea and Karnak and in other places in Egypt, were explicit in their meanings. It was added next to its name (King of Upper Egypt and the Delta, the daughter of the sun, the friend of Amun Hatshepsut, Horus al-Thahabi, granting the years, The goddess of radiance, defeating all the country, which revives hearts, the mighty lady ).
For her, this moment was the moment of victory, and the ancient Egyptian historian (Maniton )estimates her reign as21 years and nine months .
Here, a question may arise about what Hatshepsut did to Thutmose III after he overthrew him, and some may think that she killed him or exiled him to a place far from Egypt . However, the truth is that she entrusted the education and teaching of this pharaoh, who was before that a young priest, a military upbringing, and taught him the arts of state administration, to lead some military campaigns against the revolutionaries against the Egyptian rule outside the country during her late rule, and he assumed power after her death, after his marriage to Her daughter (Merit Ra Hatshepsut) , which gave him the legitimacy of government, was one of the strongest warriors pharaohs who ruled Egypt, and was the first and most powerful Egyptian empire in history .
Her work during her reign
– marked the reign of Hatshepsut , peace and well – being, and marked outdated strong army and construction activity great cruises sent to trade with the country ‘s neighbors, and under the scepter of the pharaoh woman was able to Egypt to enrich themselves and prosper, it has reopened quarries and mines that have been neglected for a long time, especially copper mines and Almlakhitt in semi Sinai Island, because the work in those mines had stopped during the period of the Hyksos rule over Egypt and its aftermath, and we still find in Sinai a plaque with a writing documenting this work, and glorifying what it did .
Hatshepsut also revitalized the movement of trade with Egypt’s neighbors, as the trade was in a bad state, especially during the reign of King Tuthmosis the Second , and she reused a canal linking the Nile at the end of the delta in the Red Sea, where she cleaned this channel after the Egyptians dug it during the days of the middle country, to run the fleet of Egypt The sea has to go out to the Gulf of Suez and then to the Red Sea . And it ordered the construction of several facilities at Karnak Temple, and also established its temple in Deir el-Bahari, Luxor .
Hatshepsut took an interest in the Egyptian merchant fleet, established large ships, and used them in the internal transport to transport obelisks that were ordered to be added to the Karnak Temple in glorification of the god Amon, and in trade exchange missions with their neighbors, and her era was characterized by luxury in Egypt, and the demand for entertainment materials brought to merchant fleets from neighboring countries Among the most important are incense, perfumes, spices, plants, tropical trees, predators and leather .
– Atlantic Ocean Mission : sent a large fleet of Queen Hatshepsut to the Atlantic Ocean , and trade flourished with the Atlantic Ocean to import some rare fish species .
– Puntland Mission : Queen Hatshepsut sent a commercial mission on board large ships carrying navigation in the Red Sea loaded with Egyptian gifts and goods such as papyrus and linen to Puntland (present-day Somalia and southern Yemen )so the King of Punt received the mission well, then returned loaded with large quantities of Predators, timber, incense, ebony, ivory, leather, and precious stones . Queen Hatshepsut photographed the news of that mission on the walls of the Deir el-Bahari temple on the West Bank of the Nile at Luxor, and the colors that decorate the drawings of this temple are still bright and retain their luster and beauty to a large extent .
– Aswan Mission : Also depicted on the walls of the Deir el-Bahari temple, the description of the Hatshepsut mission to the granite quarries at Aswan to bring huge stones to the facilities, and created two great granite obelisks in Aswan to glorify the god Amun, each amounting to about35 tons, then they were transported on the Nile until Tiba and took the two obelisks Their place is in the Karnak Temple in Luxor, and when visiting Napoleon during the French campaign against Egypt in1879 , he ordered the transfer of one of the obelisks to France, and she still adorns the Place de la Concorde in the French capital, Paris.
Historians and engineers admire to this day the ability of the Egyptians to transport these obelisks from Aswan to Luxor , the process of loading the obelisks on ships and then transporting them on the Nile and landing them on land, then moving them on the ground to their place of construction is not easy at all, and what is more than that is also the construction of the obelisks in the place chosen for them exactly in front of the edifice , which was built by Queen Hatshepsut to the Temple of Karnak just a few of the edifice meters, and engineers so far still put the theories of the way followed by the ancient Egyptian engineer to do this great work, this is not only, Hatshepsut has ordered the establishment of an obelisk Tat T the largest obelisk in the history of mankind is made up of one piece of stone weighing over1000 tons to put it at Karnak, the engineers of the ancient Egyptians left after they discovered a crack which prevents use . Tourists from all over the world are currently visiting to see the marvel of this incomplete obelisk in the Aswan quarry, and they ask themselves : How did the ancient Egyptians want to transport this giant obelisk to the Karnak temple? One of the German Egyptologists describes the methods of stone cutting that the ancient Egyptians used to deal with the stone as if it were butter, and that can actually be seen in the Aswan quarry, and it is now called (the missing obelisk) .
In the era of Hatshepsut, peace and prosperity and prosperity of the commercial movement with neighboring countries were prevalent, and they were not inclined to the policy of foreign conquest . However, some few military campaigns were recorded during her reign, most of which were disciplinary campaigns, in addition to one recorded military campaign on the reign of Hatshepsut carried out by Tuthmosis the Third, which was the seizure of Gaza, and that was near the end of its rule . And some manuscripts, such as a manuscript found in the cemetery of Sinnemot( Senenmut )TT71 Disclose
- Disciplinary campaigns inNubia and some other countries that were under Egyptian authority, as follows .
- Disciplinary campaign against Nubia at the beginning of her reign, and carried out by Hatshepsut. This is reported in a manuscript by Treasury Chairman Tiye Tij.
- A disciplinary campaign againstSyria and Palestine , according to a manuscript in Deir el-Bahri, plus a campaign against a rebellion in Nubia
- Campaign against a rebellion in Nubia in the year20of its rule (written on the Tombus plate).
- Disciplinary crackdown on MaoMau Near the band area Firka Between the years20 and22 of its ruling .
The mystery of the appearance of Hatshepsut in the clothes of male pharaohs
Hatshepsut did not want to be new in the appearance of the ruling pharaoh, which people had composed for decades. Although, at the beginning of her reign, she was conceived as a woman with all her adornment, however, later she became an example of the powerful muscular pharaoh, who lays out a false beard . She wore clothes similar to those of the previous pharaohs, men in official ceremonies, as she appeared in some of her statues with a borrowed chin, as is customary in the statues of the pharaohs .
Although this did not diminish the fact that Hatshepsut had all the characteristics of a beautiful female, she had a pleasant burgundy complexion, a slightly hooked nose, and a round face .
She liked flowers, gardens, trees, and everything is fragrant, bright in color .
Was there a love story between the Queen and the engineer, “Senemot” ?
I was ” going to die ” exciting mystery in the life of Hatshepsut, so the engineer who built her famous temple at Deir el – Bahari , which gave him80 titles, and who was the education of her daughter Princess Little( Neferure ) has reached his love for Mlicth to dig a tunnel between the cemetery And his grave, to be close to her in the next life, as he was close to her in this world . As for her, she appreciated his genius and the strength of his personality, to the point that he allowed him to build his tomb in the sanctuary of her temple to adjacent her to his death as he had done in the world .
And if the historians’ hints came to indicate that there was a love situation that had brought the two together, then she died and Hatshepsut, after the death of her husband . However, this is not certain, and it may just be a relationship of mutual respect .
And the royal engineer, Sennemot, was the one who built Lachshepsut, the most beautiful funerary temple built for a queen in history, whether ancient or modern, which is the monastery of Deir el-Bahari, which he built in the bosom of the western mountain, and its construction came in the royal white limestone brought from Tora, and in the form of three galleries above the other, so that The Queen’s spirit ascends her and ascends her to heaven to immortalize with the stars .
Hatshepsut died on the10 th of the second month of the fall semester, which coincides (January1457 , 14BC )during the22 nd year of her reign, as stated in writing on a board found in Armant .
The mummy of Hatshepsut has been verified, that the signs of her death are signs of natural death, and that the cause of her death is due to cancer or diabetes .
Hatshepsut’s tomb is in the Valley of the Kings and symbolized by the number KV20 Perhaps Hatshepsut expanded her father’s cemetery to use it, and her coffin was found next to her father’s coffin .
Recently, I took a picture of Queen Hatshepsut’s mummy, showing him in a dreamy and gentle name, as if he had performed his message to the fullest and finally rested . The funny thing about the picture also is that the queen used to have beautiful soft colored hair; it appears clearly in the picture as well, and this indicates that the mummification science that the ancient Egyptians created was a great secret if discovered; it might change the appearances of burial in the whole world .
Whatever the queen is ” Hatshepsut , ” it is one of the Koleilat of women in the ancient world who have reached the administration summit in their country, and I have made every effort to convince the man in the outdated to be accepted as a woman is governed, and whether convinced ” Hatshepsut ” men in Egypt at the time judgment Whether or not you convince them, what you did was much greater than some of the male kings did .
Hatshepsut (mean : of the most noble ladies1458-1508; BC . M ). The pharaoh fifth of the age of the family eighteen years in ancient Egypt . Egyptologists consider her one of the most successful pharaohs, bearing the title longer than any other woman in Egyptian captivity . Her reign was marked by the strength of the army, construction activity, and the great sea voyages she sent to trade with neighboring countries . She is the eldest daughter of Pharaoh of Egypt, King Thutmose I and her mother, Queen Ahmous . Her father, the king, had a illegitimate son, Tuthmosis the Second . She accepted marriage with him, according to the custom of the royal families, to participate together in the ruling after his death, as a solution to the problem of having a legitimate heir .
This queen left many mysteries and secrets, and perhaps the most exciting of these is the character of ” Senmot ” , the architect who built her famous temple in Deir el-Bahari and gave her80 titles . He was responsible for caring for her only daughter, and he learned from his love for his royal family that he dug a tunnel between her grave and his grave . And if the historians’ hints came to indicate the presence of love that brought the two together, Senmot and Hatshepsut, then the Queen and her servant also participated in ” legendary life ” , and each of them ended a mysterious end that is still a mystery until now .
(Hatshepsut was the wife of King II Tuthmosis )about(1512 BC . M 1,504 – s . M ) of the eighteenth dynasty, and it seems that her husband was ousted over a few years, but they returned to the throne in1493 BC, and throughout the past12 the following devoted all their forces And Egypt’s resources to construct roads , build houses and temples , to improve the conditions of the interior countries, and to try to keep Egypt away from war with its neighbors, and one of her greatest works is a shrine for her husband in the Valley of the Kings , near Thebes , and she also looked after artists and craftsmen, and had a son who was Amenhotep the Second (about1447 BC.m – 1,420 . m ) .
Hatshepsut’s rule was famous for peace and prosperity, as it was trying its best to develop relations, especially trade, with the countries of the ancient East to prevent any wars with them .
She took the verdict
Hatshepsut faced many problems at the beginning of her reign because of her ruling from behind the scenes without an official form, and some people say that she killed her husband and her brother King Tuthmosis the Second to seize the ruling, but there is not enough evidence . On the other hand, I faced problems with the people, as most people saw her as a woman and could not rule the country, as the king was, according to custom, the representative of the god Horus , who ruled the earth . So she was always dressed and adorned with men’s clothes, and rumored that she was the daughter of Amun to convince the people that she could rule . At the same time, the legitimate heir, Thutmose III, was still a boy and could not take care of the country’s interests . Hatshepsut worked to rule the country until he grew up, and she took into consideration that Thutmose III brought up a military education so that he could take the reins of rule later . Active trade with Hatshepsut ‘s neighbors Egypt , where trade was in poor condition , especially during the reign of King Tuthmosis II , and ordered the construction of several facilities at Karnak, also established a temple in Deir el – Bahari in Luxor, and was characterized by outdated peace and prosperity .
Her missions to neighboring countries
Hatshepsut took an interest in the Egyptian commercial fleet and established large ships and used them in the internal transport to transport obelisks that were ordered to be added to the Karnak temple in glorification of the god Amon or send ships on missions for commercial exchange with their neighbors, and its era was characterized by luxury in Egypt and peace, and increased demand for entertainment materials brought by merchant fleets from Neighboring countries, the most important of which are incense, perfumes, spices, plants , tropical trees , predators and leather .
Atlantic Mission : Queen Hatshepsut sent a large fleet to the Atlantic and trade with the Atlantic Ocean flourished to import some rare fish .
Puntland Mission : Queen Hatshepsut sent a commercial mission aboard large ships carrying navigation in the Red Sea loaded with Egyptian gifts and goods such as papyrus and flax to Puntland ( present-day Somalia ) , so the King of Punt received the mission well, then returned loaded with large quantities of predators, timber and incense Ebony, ivory, leather , and precious stones . Queen Hatshepsut photographed the news of that mission on the walls of the Deir el-Bahari temple on the West Bank of the Nile at Luxor . The colors that decorate the temples of this temple are still vibrant, preserving their luster and beauty to a great extent .
Aswan Mission : Also depicted on the walls of the Monastery of the Deir el Bahari temple, a description of the Hatshepsut mission to the granite quarries at Aswan to bring huge stones to the facilities . And she created two great granite obelisks in Aswan to glorify the god Amun , each amounting to about35 tons, then they were transported on the Nile until Tiba and the obelisks took their place in the Karnak Temple in Luxor . Upon visiting Napoleon during the French campaign against Egypt in,1879 he ordered the transfer of one of the obelisks to France , and she still adorns the Place de la Concorde in the French capital, Paris . .
Historians and engineers to this day admire the ability of Egyptians to transport these obelisks from Aswan to Luxor . The process of loading the obelisks on the ships, then transporting them to the Nile and landing them on land, then transporting them on the ground to the place of their construction is not easy at all . What is also more than that is the construction of the obelisks in the place chosen for them exactly in front of the edifice built by Queen Hatshepsut at the Karnak temple, a few meters away from the edifice . And engineers are still developing theories for the way the ancient Egyptian engineer used to do this tremendous work . Not only that, Hatshepsut issued orders to create an obelisk that is considered the largest obelisk in the history of mankind consisting of one piece of stone weighing over1000 tons to be placed in the Karnak Temple, but the ancient Egyptian engineers left it after they discovered a crack that prevents its use . Currently, tourists from all over the world are visiting to see the marvel of this unfinished obelisk in Aswan quarry . And they ask themselves : How did the ancient Egyptians want to transport this giant obelisk to the Karnak temple? A German Egyptologist describes the stone-cutting methods that the ancient Egyptians used to deal with the stone as if it were butter , and in fact it can be seen in the Aswan quarry and is now called)a deficient obelisk.
Hatshepsut in popular culture
Among the most famous queens who assumed the rule of Egypt and considered one of the beauties, Hatshepsut was the first to wear gloves due to the presence of a birth defect with her fingers6 (or more fingers in one hand) . People did not know this until after seeing her mummy. In most of the statues that were made for her, her hands seemed natural because she ordered the sculptors to do so, too. She was the first to embroider gloves with precious stones .
- One recorded military campaign during the reign of Hatshepsut by Tuthmosis the Third was the capture of Gaza, which was near the end of its rule . And some manuscripts, such as a manuscript found in the cemetery of Senamoot (Senenmut )TT71 Disclosure of disciplinary campaigns in Nubia and some other countries that were under Egyptian authority .
- Disciplinary campaign against Nubia at the beginning of her reign, and carried out by Hatshepsut. This is reported in a manuscript by Treasury Chairman Tiye Tij,
- A disciplinary campaign againstSyria and Palestine , according to a manuscript in Deir el-Bahri, plus a campaign against a rebellion in Nubia .
- Disciplinary campaign in the12 th year of its reign (stated in writing in Tanjur – GharbTangur -West).
- And it mentions the first date that Tuthmosis the Third participated in the ruling with Hatshepsut .
- Campaign against a rebellion in Nubia in the year20of its rule ( written on the Tombus plate).
- Disciplinary crackdown on MaoMau Near the band area Firka Between the years20 and22 of its ruling .
Hatshepsut died on the10 th of the second month of the fall semester (corresponding to January 1457, 14BC )during the22 nd year of her reign. This came in writing on a board found by Armant. The ancient Egyptian historian estimated Manitou Manetho Her tenure is 21 years and nine months. It had been believed in the past that she had been killed as a result of a dispute over the ruling, but the Hatshepsut mummy was now verified and was clearly showing signs of natural death , and that her death was due to cancer or diabetes. And her grave is in the Valley of the Kings and symbolized by the number KV20. Perhaps Hatshepsut expanded her father’s cemetery to use it , and found her coffin next to her father’s coffin.
This is the tourist airspace in one of the greatest palaces of Egypt, and follow us to meet in the upcoming tours with tourist tours to get to know the most important monuments and features of ancient Egypt.
With greetings from the Star Shine Tourism team.