A Dysfunctional Family Tree Several versions exist of how Anubis came into being: Son of Nephthys and Osiris: the most popular version is that Anubis is the son of Nephthys and Osiris. As the Goddess of Darkness, Nephthys would naturally be
Ancient Egypt’s Most Important Gods Ra the Sun God. As the creator of all forms of life and the absolute ruler of all the other gods, Ra had a pretty major role in the god pantheon. He was depicted with a
Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs The ancient Egyptians had a unique writing system now known as hieroglyphs. These are the little pictures that most people associate with Egyptian writing. However, the ancient Egyptians had two other scripts they used as well. Papyrus of
Anubis’ Form     © Parée – * Anubis on Egyptian Block * Anubis was either seen as a man with a jackal head or completely in the form of a jackal. In ancient Egypt, scavengers like jackals ruled the
Apprenticeships At the age of 14, the middle and lower class boys left their formal education to work as apprenticesto their fathers. This applied to farmers, stone masons, carpenters, and so forth; all the craftsmen of the time expected their sons to apprentice
Architecture and Layout Without a doubt, the ancient Egyptian architects were far more advanced than anyone could have imagined. Using the natural caverns within the valley, ancient architects carved walls, chambers and intricate pathways without any modern tools with surprising precision. Egyptians
Climate The inhospitable climate of the area around the valley – blistering hot days, and freezing cold evenings, made it unsuitable for people to live and thrive. This prevented, in some measure, grave robbery which was common for the time. However, the harsh climate
Cult Worship of Amun was widespread and the pharaohs’ awarded the cult with land a percentage of the booty from conquests. One of the important positions in the cult was the “god’s wife of Amun” and the queen or queen-mother
Depictions Images and statues of Amun usually show him as a man with a blue or black skin. He wears a double-plumed headdress and the plumes have alternating colors of either red and green or red and blue. Amun wears several
Design, Dimensions, and Specifications Constructed between 2589 and 2504 BC, although estimated dates vary somewhat, the Great Pyramid of Giza is believed to have been designed as a tomb for the Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu, also known as Cheops. Its designer is thought
Edfu The site of another well-preserved temple, the Temple of Edfu, also known as The Temple of Horus, was constructed on top of earlier temples. Located in Upper Egypt, the Temple of Horus was an incredible source of information regarding ancient Egyptian political and
The names of the Egyptian pharaohs typically had five names, one which was bestowed upon them at birth and another four names that were not given until they took the throne. The final four names were bestowed upon the king
Egyptology Definition Ancient Egyptian civilization has a history going back to around 3,000 BC. Egyptology is the study of this history in regards to the language, religion, art, literature and architecture up until about 400 A.D. which marked the end of hieroglyphic
El-Fishawy Café is one of Cairo’s famous cafes. It is located in the Al-Azhar neighborhood and is considered one of the oldest cafes in Cairo, since its establishment dates back to 1797 AD. The cafe took its fame and luster,
Famous Egyptologists Howard Carter There have been thousands of Egyptologists over the millennia. Although not the father of Egyptology, Howard Carter is one of the most well-known. In November of 1922, he discovered the tomb of the boy king, Tutankhamun. An Englishman, Carter
Fertility, Resurrection, and Everlasting Life It is said the dead kings of Egypt would rise with Osiris and inherit eternal life. By Egypt’s New Kingdom it was said not only would the dead kings rise from the dead with him, but
History of the Valley of the Kings The earliest tombs located in the Valley of the Kings were opportunistically placed in naturally formed clefts, well-hidden in the crags of limestone bluffs or cliffs. In these clefts, the softer marl and worn
Mother Goddess   © A. Parrot – The Goddess Nut Egyptologists believe that Nut was a sky goddess originally worshiped by the early tribes of the Nile Valley area. In Lower Egypt, the Milky Way was viewed as the celestial image
Musical Instruments Through the study of hieroglyphs, researchers have learned that there were many ancient Egypt musical instruments. There are depictions of instruments of all kinds, including string, wind and percussion. The hieroglyphs also show those listening to music clapping their hands
Names © kairoinfo4u – Geb (left) with Horus The myths of ancient Egypt mention several names for Geb. The name ‘Geb’ is the most common spelling of this god’s name, other spellings include: Qeb Seb Keb Several different titles for
Names and Titles Amun was given the title “King of the Gods” of Upper Egypt. Scholars discovered several different spellings of the name Amun in Egyptian literature. Some of the different spellings are Am, Amen, Amon, Amoun, Ammon and Hammon.
Who Was Osiris? © Jan – Statue of Osiris Osiris was the ancient Egyptian god of the dead, the underworld, and the afterlife. He is usually depicted as a man with green skin and a beard associated with the pharaoh, wearing
Paper and Writing Hieroglyphics The ancient Egyptians were among the first groups of people to write and keep records of events that happened in their lives. The earliest form of writing was in the form of hieroglyphics, which, simply put, were drawings
Hieroglyph Symbol Meaning Vulture Represents the Egyptian Vulture Foot Human foot and lower leg Hand Word for hand, actions or actions that are performed Also used in iconography (Flowering) Reed Ideogram, alphabetic uniliteral (consisting of one letter only) vowel ‘i’
Singing in Ancient Egypt Musicianship was highly regarded in ancient Egypt and singing was no exception. There are references to many during the era who were considered outstanding singers, including Amen Inaros, whose mother was also a songstress. Singers became quite common
The Giza Plateau Located on the Giza Plateau, the Great Sphinx of Giza is one of several monuments in the area, which includes the Giza Necropolis. The Giza Plateau is a sandy plateau in Giza, Egypt that overlooks the West bank
The Rosetta Stone © bathyporeia – The Rosetta Stone Before the discovery of the Rosetta Stone, scholars had different ideas about hieroglyphs. Many believed that each hieroglyph represented an idea, specifically what the sign resembled. Other scholars thought hieroglyphics followed no rules
Interior Design, Symbolism, and Furnishings The interior of the Great Pyramid of Giza is more elaborate than most other pyramids and has three main chambers: a lower chamber which remains unfinished, a middle chamber called the Queen’s chamber, and an upper
The Temple of Isis at Philae Although there are several temples and buildings located on Philae, the largest and perhaps the most famous is the Temple of Isis. Here, the ancient Egyptians worshiped Isis as well as Osiris and Horus (her son). Ptolemy II, Nectanebo I built
The Valley of the Kings is one of the earliest examples of a necropolis, (literally, a ‘city of the dead’). A veritable burial ground of the great pharaohs and noblemen of Egypt for a period of time that spans 500 years,
timeline image Here is a brief timeline of ancient Egypt: Time Period Important Events Pre-3100 BC Predynastic Period Area around the Nile settled due to overgrazing and weather changes which led to the creation of the Sahara desert. 4000 BC: Use of tomb
Ancient Egypt Medical Papyrus The Edwin Smith Papyrus This papyrus carries the name of the man who purchased it from an Egyptian dealer in 1862. It is a medical text on surgical trauma, dating back to 1600 B.C., and it is
Weapons Prior to the Egyptian civilization, weapons used for protection, hunting or in combat were very basic. During the ancient Egyptian civilization, weapons became more and more sophisticated. Examples are stone-tipped arrows, battle axes, chariots, the khopesh, maces, body armor,
What are Hieroglyphs? ©Aleksandar Cocek – Hieroglyphs at Karnak Scholars have discovered that there are three different classes of Egyptian hieroglyphics. Some signs belong to more than one class. Phonograms are signs that represent a specific sound. Some correspond with the sounds of two
What is Papyrus? Papyrus is both the shortened name of the plant and the paper product made from it, but is most often referred to as the latter. The plant grows in the Nile River and can reach heights of about 16 feet. The
Wild Animals Several types of wild animals had religious associations and were used for various ceremonial purposes.   Antelopes were associated with Sokar and carried his royal and overseer attributes. Antelope heads graced the prow of ceremonial boats that stood in
Who was Nefertari? © Walwyn – Nefertari statue at Karnak Her name, Nefertari Merytmut (meaning The Beautiful Companion, Beloved of Mut), embodied the majesty and stature of queen Nefertari. At the young age of 13 she married the 15 year old Ramses
Worship The history of the development of Amun’s worship is fascinating. He started as a deity worshiped only in Thebes. After the pharaohs moved their capital to Thebes, Amun became a major god. During the Eighteenth Dynasty, he assimilated with Ra
Romantic Love in Ancient Egypt © MCAD Library – Pharaoh Menkaure and his wife Many ancient Egyptian tomb drawings depict affectionate gestures between a man and wife, indicating that there was an emphasis on romantic love in ancient Egypt. Common images