Egypt is located in a unique geographical location between Asia and Africa. The country is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea in the north and Red Sea in the east and enjoys a unique and diverse environment and natural beauty. As a measure to conserve the natural biodiversity of Egypt and its flora and fauna as well, a law was passed in 1983 that gave the prime minister the power to declare some areas natural protectorates  or National parks or Since then, 28 such protectorates have been recognized which include areas covering coastal, wetlands, geological and coastal areas. The natural protectorates that have so far been declared in Egypt cover around 15% of the nation’s land area.  The prime minister of Egypt has full powers to define the limits of any naturally protected areas and also set the basic principles for the management and the conservation of resources there. The natural protectorates in Egypt are not related in any way to the colonial protectorates which were once established by the British.


Crow empress


Eighteen Of The Most Popular Protectorates In Egypt




  • Ras Muhammad National Park is the first protectorate of Egypt. It preserves a diverse shoreline and coral reef system which are known globally as some of the best on earth. Around 1,500 marine creatures can be found here.
  • Zaranik protected area has an amazing collection of flora and fauna, including some rare species of migratory birds.
  • Al Ahrash reserve,  in the northeast, is known for its plants and trees making it a true natural haven.
  • El Omayed located in the Mediterranean coastal desert has some of the most diverse and richest flora on the globe and is blessed with dunes of white sand, limestone ridges and salt marshes.


  • Elba protectorate has a large number of mangroves of the Red Sea, islands, coral reefs, coastal sand dunes, salt marshes, desert plains and a cluster of coastal mountains
  • Salouga and Dhazal in the river Nile are characterized by 94 varieties of plants and tons of bushes.
  • St. Catherine national park is a popular place among climbers and has 1,000 plants species and around 40% of the total flora of Egypt.
  • Lake Qarun national park is a famous archeological site due to its rich marine life and unique collection of flora and fauna dating back 40 million years.
  • Wadi El Rayan has dune areas around natural springs and over 13 species of plants. The world endangered species of the slender-horned gazella leptoceros can be found here.


Most of these protectorates have become popular as famous tourist destinations where lovers of nature come to see the unique scenery and enjoy the great outdoors.

The protectorates are also a habitat for many endangered species of plants and animals.