Metallurgy was carried on with an elaborate technique and a business organization not unworthy of the modern world, while the systematic exploitation of mines was an important industry employing many thousands of workers. Even as early as 3400 B.C., at the beginning of the historical period, the Egyptians had an intimate knowledge of copper ores […]

Marriage In The Afterlife

Ancient Egyptians believed marriages were eternal and extended into the afterlife. The life expectancy for most men was their thirties while women frequently as young as sixteen died in childbirth or otherwise only lived slightly longer than their husbands. Thus ancient Egyptians emphasised the importance of choosing a congenial partner in life and death. The […]

Modern Scholarship and Muslim Social Sciences:

2. Modern Scholarship and Muslim Social Sciences: There are many branches of Muslim subjects and their specialists. It takes a long experience to be able to dissect this and come out with the who deals with what, and who truly provides the readership in these days of time scarcity with the best information, at the […]


Memphis The capital city of the Old Kingdom, Memphis was built by the kings of the First Dynasty and was one of the key religious centers, the other being Heliopolis. Although many gods were worshiped in Memphis, the Triad of Memphis consisted of Ptah, his wife Sekhmet and Nefertem, their son. Located roughly 15 miles […]

Mummification: All About Egyptian Mummies

Mummification is generally considered to be the artificial process by which the bodies of (usually notable) persons, as well as those of sacred animals, are intentionally preserved after death by treating them with various substances such as spices, gums, bitumen or natron. The practice seems to have been attempted by various peoples at various times […]


MARCUS SIMAIKA PASHA (1864-1944), Founder of the Coptic Museum “Winter 1908, Pope Kyrillos V, as a silversmith is supervising the process of weighing out old silver gospel covers and church vessels to be melted down for reworking. They bore fifteenth and sixteenth century inscriptions in Coptic and Arabic scripts. Marcus Simaika Pasha, entering the room […]

Muslim Heritage in mechanics and technology

1. Muslim Heritage in mechanics and technology: milestones in century long research Figure 1: Eilhard Wiedemann (1852-1928), Professor of Physics at Erlangen University in Germany and pioneer historian of Arabic physics and technology. See: Literatur von und über Eilhard Wiedemann in the Catalogue of the Deutschen Nationalbibliothek. I am so glad and honored to be among you in this […]

Musical Instruments

Musical Instruments Through the study of hieroglyphs, researchers have learned that there were many ancient Egypt musical instruments. There are depictions of instruments of all kinds, including string, wind and percussion. The hieroglyphs also show those listening to music clapping their hands along with the performances. © ketrin1407 – Wall Painting Depicting Musicians Ancient Egypt musical instruments […]

Marriage And Romantic Love

Numerous ancient Egyptian tomb paintings show affectionate couples, pointing to an appreciation of the concept if romantic love amongst ancient Egyptians. Images of couples touching intimately and caressing their spouse affectionately, smiling happily and offering each other gifts are widespread in tomb art. The Pharaoh Tutankhamun’s tomb is replete with romantic images of he and Queen Ankhesenamun his […]

Love and Marriage In Ancient Egypt

While some elements of marriage in ancient Egypt appear on the surface to be similar to those customs of today, other ancient conventions were radically different. Moreover, surviving accounts of marriage customs in ancient Egypt have failed to provide us with a full picture. As is the case today Egyptian society, saw marriage as being a lifetime [...]